What sorts of evidence should philosophers use?


What sorts of evidence should philosophers use? TABLE OF CONTENTS: Introduction, Pge2 Section 1: The Proper Foundation View, Pge2-10 Section 2: Discussion of Restrictionism, Pge10-23 ABSTRACT: In this paper I shall explain the key ideas of the experimental philosophical movement, and consider their implications for philosophical practice. In the first section I shall argue that … Continue reading

NOTES ON: Wittgenstein’s Rule Following Considerations


The debate about what the correct interpretation of Wittgenstein’s writings about following a rule is on-going; it hinges on the question of whether he intended to claim that an individual who had never been a member of any community is capable of following a rule. In what follows I will introduce two competing positions concerning … Continue reading

The Private Language Argument: what actually is it?


Wittgenstein defines the notion of a private language in §243 of the Philosophical Investigations (PI): The words of this language are to refer to what can be known only by the speaker – to his immediate, private sensations. So another cannot understand the language. Such a language would be logically private, in that the signs … Continue reading

If the propositions of the Tractatus are nonsensical (6.54), then how can we gain insight by reading it? What is the nature of the insight supposedly gained?


If the propositions of the Tractatus are nonsensical (6.54), then how can we gain insight by reading it? What is the nature of the insight supposedly gained? There has been a great deal of discussion concerning what Wittgenstein was attempting to convey when he wrote “Tractatus Logico-Philosphicus” (TLP). This discussion stems from the realisation that … Continue reading

“Functional Explanations are teleological and unscientific” – Discuss


“Functional Explanations are teleological and unscientific” – Discuss Functional Explanation (FE) attempts to explain a feature of a society (practices/structures/etc) in terms of the beneficial consequences it has for the broader social system. FEs are used to explain systems which have a tendency towards self-regulation – such systems are described as having a certain ‘equilibrium … Continue reading

Why does Frege think there are indirect Senses and references? Are his reasons good ones?


Why does Frege think there are indirect Senses and references? Are his reasons good ones? The reference of an expression, if it has one, is just what it denotes – the object(s) that it is about. The Sense of a name is the Thought it expresses; they are mind-independent, and so the same Sense may … Continue reading

Does the traditional definition of knowledge either require the replacement of the third condition, or a fourth condition?


Does the traditional definition of knowledge either require the replacement of the third condition, or a fourth condition? If so, which strategy do you prefer and why? If not, how else can the traditional account be repaired? In “Is Justified True Belief Knowledge?” Edmund Gettier showed beyond doubt that what I shall call the ‘traditional’ … Continue reading

Are Sensations Brain Processes?


Are Sensations Brain Processes? The claim that all sensations are brain processes may be attributed to the identity theories of mind. Specifically, Smart and Place argued that although the behaviourists before them were right to link behaviour with internal mental states, they were wrong to identify them – identity theorists hold that it makes much … Continue reading

Do Propositions Exist?


Do Propositions Exist? In this essay I shall first outline some of the reasons that have motivated philosophers to postulate the existence of propositions. Having done this, I shall outline and assess some issues with the notion of propositions raised by Quine’s critique of the notion. I shall discuss the impact of these criticisms and … Continue reading

evaluate anselm’s ontological argument for the existence of god.


Evaluate Anselm’s Ontological Argument for the Existence of God. The Ontological Argument for the existence of God is the only a priori argument for God’s existence; it attempts to show that if you reflect properly on the nature of God you will find that He must exist. The argument was originally laid out by St … Continue reading